NANOTECHNOLOGY GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Nano is a scale, nanotechnology means technologies developed at that scale, so dealing with nanoscience and nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary situation; its target is not a specific subject; It creates a wide coverage area that requires collaboration and includes many researches. Nano means 1 in a billion and working at a scale of 1 in a billion. With atoms and their arrangement; means to innovate in materials, production techniques, and to develop new products with superior features suitable for the needs.
Since nano is only a measure of measure, nanotechnology has a wide range of applications, starting from material production, covering many disciplines such as electronic, magnetic, optical, mechanical, and biomedical processes. Many properties of engineering materials used today are due to their internal structures (grain, crystal) that are larger than a micrometer. Nanomaterials, on the other hand, owe their superior properties to structures 10 to several hundred times smaller than a micrometer. Recent studies in this field have focused on the production, characterization and applications of nano-sized materials, devices and systems.
Now, thanks to nanotechnology, supercomputers can be looked at under the microscope, DVDs that can take a million movies can be made, nano robots that find and heal diseased tissue inside the human body and perform surgery can be used. much more durable materials can be produced. Again, products such as textile products used in daily life may change, as well as the emergence of new rocket and aircraft designs in space exploration and aviation. All these developments are scientific and technological revolutions that can reshape the world. In other words, the new era started as the era of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
The History of Nanotechnology The famous American physicist Richard Feynman (1918-1988) put forward for the first time that there is a nano-sized world. Feynman touched upon the mystery of nanoscales for the first time in his speech titled “There is plenty of room at the bottom” at a conference in 1959. Feynman reported that many new discoveries will emerge if manufacturing can be made in atomic and molecular sizes.
In this speech, which is accepted as the beginning of nanotechnology, it was emphasized that nanoscale measurement and production methods should be developed first in order to be engaged in nano-scale studies. Some highlights from Feynman’s speech;
The 24-volume Encyclopedia Britannica can be written on a pin
Small scale engines
Superior structures and systems similar to those in biological structures
He talked about many new ideas that would be heard for the first time and discovered later, such as dominating atoms and rearranging them.
Usage Areas of Nanotechnology
- Material and manufacturing sector
- Nano Electric and Computer Technologies
- Medicine and Health Sector
- Aerospace Studies
- Environment and Energy
- Defense Sector
- Biotechnology, Agriculture and Food
Where is Nanotechnology Used?
The field of nanotechnology is quite large and expanding. Today, in addition to its use in fields such as physics, chemistry, biology, computers, materials science, electronics, it has started to enable quite striking developments in the field of medicine. It is a developing technology, although it has a limited number of applications, it is obvious that it will spread to a much wider range for the future. many microscopic devices will perhaps circulate in our veins and provide treatment like experts. By understanding the physical properties of nano-sized structures, a bridge can be built with a new nanoscopic world.
With the production of nanomaterials, much more durable transportation vehicles and non-polluting, non-rusting items, even self-cleaning clothes will be produced.
Usable water resources, which will be one of the biggest problems in the future, will also be able to renew themselves with this technology. Perhaps in the near future, biological and pharmacological computers that can work in the human body can be produced in this way. For nanotechnology, we can say that it is the key technology of our age.
Nanoelectronics and Computer Technology: With the production of electronic circuit elements at nanoscale, changes will occur in the architectural design of computers. Because nanoscale circuit elements are produced with less energy, these computers will be smaller and larger in speed and capacity.
Aerospace Studies: Nano-structured materials are important in the construction of rockets and space stations because they are lighter, more durable, and more resistant to heat. Possible applications; The construction of low-energy, radiation-resistant, high-efficiency computers can be nano-scale instruments that can be used in micro-scale spacecraft, nano-structured sensors and flight systems supported by nano-electronics, heat-resistant nano-structured coating materials.
Medicine and Health: Proteins, protein complexes, tissues, chromosomes, lipids, carbohydrates are examples of nanoscale materials. New methods will be developed in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases thanks to nano-scale devices. In this way, damaged nerve cells can be repaired and diseased structures can be destroyed.
Environment and Energy: In the near future, energy will take the first place in the list of the basic problems of humanity, and the environment will take the fourth place. Nanotechnology has application areas in the efficient use, storage and production of energy. Cars produced with nanotechnology will consume less fuel, pollute the environment less and be economical. With H storage, cars running on hydrogen energy will be used, resulting in environmentally friendly fuel consumption.
In addition, water is in the second place of humanity’s main problems. Thanks to nano filters, it will be possible to obtain clean water.
Biology and Agriculture: Biosynthesis and bioprocessing can provide new chemical and pharmaceutical materials. By embedding biological building blocks into artificial materials and devices, materials with biological function and other desirable properties can be produced. There are also uses of nanotechnology in agriculture. For example, the development of chemicals at the molecular level to protect plants against insects; The development of nanoscale control methods for the genes of animals and plants, drugs for animals, and DNA tests can be achieved.
Defense: Some devices made of nanomaterials can be lighter and more robust, longer-lasting, harmful gases and radioactive fallout can be detected with nano-detectors, nuclear defense systems can be controlled by combining nano- and micro-mechanical devices. Smart clothes can be made with nanotechnology product textile materials. A ‘super soldier’ model can be created with smart clothes. The smart uniform the soldier wears; It will let you know when it aims with a laser gun, it will work like a solar cell when it needs energy, it can detect toxic biological and chemical gases.
Will be able to be recognized by his own soldier at night, but at the same time will be very light.
Science and Education: Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field. Nanotechnology is the common field of basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology and applied sciences such as materials, electronics, chemistry, machinery and computer engineering. Therefore, it is necessary to make new arrangements in education programs in accordance with this development.
According to Roco (2002), educational programs need a complete restructuring, from microanalysis to understanding the nanoscale and using materials at the nanoscale creatively.